Italian Co-belligerent Army
The Italian Co-belligerent Army (Esercito Cobelligerante Italiano), Army of the South (Esercito del Sud), or Italian Liberation Corps (Corpo Italiano di Liberazione) were names applied to the Royal Italian Army during the period when it fought on the side of the Allies during World War II, that is to say from September 1943 onwards. During the same period, the pro-allied Italian Royal Navy and Italian Royal Air Force were known as the Italian Co-belligerent Navy and Italian Co-belligerent Air Force respectively. From September 1943, pro-Axis Italian forces became the National Republican Army of the newly formed Italian Social Republic.
The Italian Co-belligerent Army was the result of the Allied armistice with Italy on September 8, 1943; King Victor Emmanuel III dismissed Benito Mussolini as Prime Minister in July 1943 following the Allied invasion of Southern Italy, and nominated Marshal of Italy (Maresciallo d'Italia) Pietro Badoglio instead, who aligned Italy with the Allies.
Although the Co-belligerent Army provided over 20,000 men for the Allied cause, it was greatly outnumbered by the partisans of the Italian Resistance, who fielded up to 80,000 men on the Allied side, including perhaps 30,000 fighters in the Italian Communist Party's partisan units.
On 28 September 1943, the Italian Co-belligerent Army began when its first military unit was formed in tented reorganization camps near Lecce. Some of the first soldiers in this unit had just barely managed to escape internment by the Germans. In accordance with Royal Army Order 70/V, the Italian First Motorized Combat Group (1• Raggruppamento Motorizzato) was created. The unit included elements of two divisions of the old Italian Royal Army: The 18 Infantry Division Messina and the 58 Infantry Division Legnano The First Motorized Combat Group had a strength of 295 officers and 5,387 men.
The first action of the First Motorized Combat Group was in the Cassino sector at Monte Lungo. This action did much to remove the Allied distrust of the Italian soldiers fighting on their side. The unit suffered heavy casualties and performed well enough.
Following service with the American Fifth Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, and re-organization, the First Motorized Combat Group was transferred to the Polish II Corps on the extreme left of the British Eighth Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Sir Oliver W. H. Leese.
On 17 April 1944, the formation (now 22,000 men strong) assumed the name Italian Liberation Corps (Corpo Italiano di Liberazione, or CIL). The continuous influx of volunteers made it necessary to form further formations. The CIL was organized in two new divisions: The "Nembo" and the "Utili." The "Nembo" Division was formed around the old Royal Army's parachute division of the same name. The "Utili" Division was formed around the First Motorized Combat Group and was named after its commander, General Umberto Utili. In early 1944, a 5,000 man force of Italians fought on the Gustav Line around Monte Cassino and acquitted itself well. The Italians once again suffered heavy casualties.
After the battle of Filottrano (July 1944), Italian troops were sent to the rear lines to rest and re-train. In the meantime they were re-kitted with standard British/Commonwealth equipment including Battle Dress uniforms and helmets (mostly new and not taken off corpses as hearsay sometimes has it).
By early 1945 the CIL had outgrown itself. It was used as the nucleus for six separate Combat Groups (Gruppi di Combattimento): "Cremona", "Legnano", "Friuli", "Mantova", "Piceno", and "Folgore". Each Combat Group was the equal to a weak division and was equipped with British uniforms, materiel and weapons. The established strength for each was 432 officers, 8,578 other rank, 116 field guns, 170 mortars, 502 light machine guns, and 1,277 motor vehicles. The Combat Groups were given the names of old Royal Army divisions and followed the component numbering system of the component regiments to some extent. These groups were attached to various American and British formations on the Gothic Line. The following is the "order of battle" of the Italian Co-belligerent Army as of April 1945
The Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces High Command was Marshal Giovanni Messe, while the Chief of Staff of the Army was Lieutenant General Paolo Berardi.
Each infantry regiment fielded three infantry battalions, a mortar company armed with British ML 3 inch mortars and an anti-tank company armed with British QF 6 pounder guns. The artillery regiments consisted of four artillery groups with British QF 25 pounder guns, one anti-tank group with British QF 17 pounder guns and one anti-air group armed with British versions of the Bofors 40mm gun.
- Cremona Combat Group with men from the 44th Infantry Division Cremona, attached to British V Corps - Major General Clemente Primieri
- 21st Infantry Regiment
- 22nd Infantry Regiment
- 7th Artillery Regiment
- CXLIV Engineer Battalion
- Friuli Combat Group with men from the 20th Infantry Division Friuli, attached to British X Corps - Major General Arturo Scattini
- 87th Infantry Regiment
- 88th Infantry Regiment
- 35th Artillery Regiment
- CXX Engineer Battalion
- Folgore Combat Group with men from the 184th Airborne Division Nembo, attached to British XIII Corps - Major General Morigi
- Legnano Combat Group, attached to US II Corps - Lieutenant General Utili
- 68th Infantry Regiment with men from the 58th Infantry Division Legnano
- Special Infantry Regiment with 2x Alpini battalions (remnants of the 3rd Alpini Regiment of the 1st Alpine Division Taurinense) and 1x Bersaglieri battalion (remnants of the 4th Bersaglieri Regiment )
- 11th Artillery Regiment with men from the 104th Motorised Division Mantova
- LI Engineer Battalion
- Mantova Combat Group - Major General Bologna
- Piceno Combat Group with men from the 152nd Infantry Division Piceno - Major General Beraudo di Pralormo
- 235th Infantry Regiment
- 336th Infantry Regiment
- 152nd Artillery Regiment
- CLII Engineer Battalion
In addition to the Combat Groups the Italian Co-belligerent Army included also a force of 8 Auxiliary Divisions (Divisioni Ausiliarie, largely intended to perform labouring and second lined duties), around 200,000 men strong, largely employed by the Allies in various support and logistical activities, those auxiliary units were the following:
- 205th Division (assigned to US Army Air Forces Command in the Mediterranean)
- 51 Gruppo Aviazione (Infantry and AA Artillery Air Force Regiment)
- 52 Gruppo Aviazione (Infantry and AA Artillery Air Force Regiment)
- 53 Gruppo Aviazione (Infantry and AA Artillery Air Force Regiment)
- 54 Gruppo Aviazione (Infantry and AA Artillery Air Force Regiment)
- 55 Gruppo Aviazione (Infantry and AA Artillery Air Force Regiment)
- 209th Division (in support of the British 1st District)
- 210th Division (assigned to US Fifth Army)
- 212th Division, the largest of the Auxiliary Divisions, at its heights its complements exceeded 44,000 men operating in an assigned area of operations extended from Naples to Pisa and Livorno
- 227th Division (in support of the British 3rd District)
- 228th Division (assigned to UK Eighth Army)
- 230th Division (in support of the British forces)
- 541 Infantry, Coast Artillery and AA Artillery Regiment
- 403 Pioneer and labour Regiment (Engineer Corps)
- 404 Pioneer and labour Regiment (Engineer Corps)
- 406 Pioneer and labour Regiment (Engineer Corps)
- 501 Security Battalion
- 510 Security Battalion
- 514 Security Battalion
- XXI Supply trains Group (Gruppo salmerie, a Regiment size unit)
- 231st Division (assigned to British XIII Corps of the US Fifth Army)
Not directly dependent from the Allied Headquarters in Italy the Co-Belligerent Army also deployed three Internal Security Divisions (Divisioni di Sicurezza Interna) for internal security duties:
- Internal Security Division Sabauda in Enna on Sicily
- I Security Brigade
- 45th Infantry Regiment
- 46th Infantry Regiment
- II Security Brigade
- 145th Infantry Regiment detached from the 227th Coastal Division
- 16th Field Artillery Regiment (without artillery pieces)
- CXXX Italian Engineer Battalion
- I Security Brigade
- Internal Security Division Aosta in Palermo on Sicily
- III Security Brigade
- 5th Infantry Regiment
- 6th Infantry Regiment
- IV Security Brigade
- 139th Infantry Regiment detached from the 47th Infantry Division Bari
- 22nd Field Artillery Regiment (without artillery pieces)
- XXVIII Engineer Battalion
- III Security Brigade
- Internal Security Division Calabria in Cagliari on Sardinia
- V Security Brigade
- 59th Infantry Regiment
- 60th Infantry Regiment
- VI Security Brigade
- 236th Infantry Regiment detached from the 152nd Infantry Division Piceno
- 40th Field Artillery Regiment (without artillery pieces)
- XXXI Engineer Battalion
- V Security Brigade
- Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, President of the Italian Republic from 1999 to 2006.
- Eugenio Corti
- Giovanni Messe
- Gianni Agnelli
- Valerio Zurlini
- Clemente Primieri
- Umberto Utili
- Military history of Italy during World War II
- Italian Campaign in World War II
- Mediterranean Theatre of World War II
- Battle of Mignano Monte Lungo
- Gothic Line
- Italian Royal Army, Kingdom of Italy
- Italian National Republican Army, Italian Social Republic
- Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force
- Italian Co-Belligerent Navy
- Operation Herring, the last combat parachute jump in the European Theater of Operations, made by Italian troops.
- Holland, Italy's Sorrow, p. 53
- Jowett, The Italian Army 1940-43 (3), p. 24
- Mollo, The Armed Forces of World War II, p. 100
- "Order of Battle: Italian Co-Belligerent Forces". Military History Network. 11 March 2004. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- Fatutta, Francesco: "L'Esercito nella Guerra di Liberazione (1943-1945)", Rivista Italiana Difesa, n°8 Agosto 2002, pag. 82-94.
- Holland, James, Italy's Sorrw: A Year of War 1944-1945, St. Martin's Press, New York, ISBN 978-0-312-37396-2, ISBN 0-312-37396-1
- Jowett, Phillip, The Italian Army 1940-45 (3): Italy 1943-45, Osprey Publishing, Westminster, MD, ISBN 978-1-85532-866-2
- Mollo, Andrew, The Armed Forces of World War II, Crown Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-517-54478-4