Khartoum

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Khartoum
الخرطوم
al-Kharṭūm
City
Khartoum at night
Khartoum at night
Flag of Khartoum
Flag
Nickname(s): Triangular Capital
Khartoum is located in Sudan
Khartoum
Khartoum
Khartoum is located in Africa
Khartoum
Khartoum
Location in Sudan and Africa
Coordinates: 15°30′2″N 32°33′36″E / 15.50056°N 32.56000°E / 15.50056; 32.56000Coordinates: 15°30′2″N 32°33′36″E / 15.50056°N 32.56000°E / 15.50056; 32.56000
Country Sudan
State Khartoum
Government
 • Governor Abdel Rahim Mohammed Hussein
Area
 • Total 20,736 km2 (8,006 sq mi)
Population (2014)
 • Total 5,185,000[1]
Demonym(s) Khartoumese, Khartoumian (the latter more properly designates a Mesolithic archaeological stratum)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 • Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC+3)
Satellite view of Khartoum
Khartoum with White and Blue Niles

Khartoum (/kɑːrˈtm/ kar-TOOM)[2][3] is the capital and largest city of Sudan and the state of Khartoum. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile, flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile, flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as "al-Mogran" (المقرن the confluence). The main Nile continues to flow north towards Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea.

Divided by the Niles, Khartoum is a tripartite metropolis with an estimated overall population of over five million people, consisting of Khartoum proper, and linked by bridges to Khartoum North (الخرطوم بحري al-Kharṭūm Baḥrī) and Omdurman (أم درمان Umm Durmān) to the west.

History

Etymology

The origin of the word, "Khartoum", is uncertain. One theory argues that khartoum is derived from Arabic khurṭūm (خرطوم trunk or hose), probably referring to the narrow strip of land extending between the Blue and White Niles.[4] Captain J.A. Grant, who reached Khartoum in 1863 with Captain Speke's expedition, thought the name was most probably from the Arabic qurtum (قرطم safflower, i.e., Carthamus tinctorius), which was cultivated extensively in Egypt for its oil to be used as fuel.[5] Some scholars speculate that the word derives from the Nubian word, Agartum ("the abode of Atum"), the Nubian and Egyptian god of creation. Other Beja scholars suggest "Khartoum" is derived from the Beja word, Hartoom ("meeting").[6][7] Additionally, the dream interpreting magicians in Genesis 41:8 are referred to as חַרְטֻמֵּ֥י (Khartoumei).citation needed

Founding (1821–1899)

Khartoum at the Bend of the Nile
Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi religious leader of the Mahdist War

In 1821, Khartoum was established 24 kilometres (15 mi) north of the ancient city of Soba, by Ibrahim Pasha, the son of Egypt's ruler, Muhammad Ali Pasha, who had just incorporated Sudan into his realm. Originally, Khartoum served as an outpost for the Egyptian Army, but the settlement quickly grew into a regional centre of trade. It also became a focal point for the slave trade. Later, it became the administrative center of Sudan and official capital.

On 13 March 1884, troops loyal to the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad started a siege of Khartoum, against defenders led by British General Charles George Gordon. The siege ended in a massacre of the Anglo-Egyptian garrison. On 26 January 1885, the heavily damaged city fell to the Mahdists, and all its inhabitants were put to death.[8]

On 2 September 1898, Omdurman was the scene of the bloody Battle of Omdurman, during which British forces under Herbert Kitchener defeated the Mahdist forces defending the city.

Modern history (20th–21st centuries)

In 1973, the city was the site of an anomalous hostage crisis in which members of Black September held 10 hostages at the Saudi Arabian embassy, five of them diplomats. The US ambassador, the US deputy ambassador, and the Belgian chargé d'affaires were murdered. The remaining hostages were released. A 1973 United States Department of State document, declassified in 2006, concluded: "The Khartoum operation was planned and carried out with the full knowledge and personal approval of Yasser Arafat."[9]

In 1977, the first oil pipeline between Khartoum and the Port of Sudan was completed.

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Khartoum was the destination for hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing conflicts in neighboring nations such as Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Uganda. Many Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees assimilated into society, while others settled in large slums at the outskirts of the city. Since the mid-1980s, large numbers of refugees from South Sudan and Darfur fleeing the violence of the Second Sudanese Civil War and Darfur conflict have settled around Khartoum.

In 1991, Osama bin Laden purchased a house in the affluent al-Riyadh neighborhood of the city and another in Soba. He lived there until 1996, when he was banished from the country. Following the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings, the United States accused bin Laden's al-Qaeda group and, on 20 August, launched cruise missile attacks on the al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in northern Khartoum. The destruction of the factory produced diplomatic tension between the U.S. and Sudan. The factory ruins are now a tourist attraction.citation needed

The sudden death of SPLA head and vice-president of Sudan, John Garang, at the end of July 2005, was followed by three days of violent riots in the capital. The riots finally died down after Southern Sudanese politicians and tribal leaders sent strong messages to the rioters. The situation could have been much more dire; even so, the death toll was at least 24, as youths from southern Sudan attacked northern Sudanese and clashed with security forces.[10]

The Organisation of African Unity summit of 18–22 July 1978 was held in Khartoum, during which Sudan was awarded the OAU presidency. The African Union summit of 16–24 January 2006 was held in Khartoum.

The Arab League summit of 28–29 March 2006 was held in Khartoum, during which the Arab League awarded Sudan the Arab League presidency.

On 10 May 2008, the Darfur rebel group, Justice and Equality Movement, moved into the city, where they engaged in heavy fighting with Sudanese government forces. Their soldiers included minors, and their goal was to topple Omar al-Bashir's government, though the Sudanese government succeeded in beating back the assault.[11][12][13]

On 23 October 2012, an explosion at the Yarmouk munitions factory killed two people and injured another person. The Sudanese government has claimed that the explosion was the result of an Israeli airstrike.[14]

Panorama of Khartoum

Geography

Location

Sudan, in northeast Africa, measures about one quarter the size of the United States. Its neighbors are Chad and the Central African Republic to the west, Egypt and Libya to the north, Ethiopia and Eritrea to the east, and South Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, and Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south. The Red Sea washes about 500 mi of its eastern coast, and it is traversed from north to south by the Nile, all of whose great tributaries are partly or entirely within its borders.

Khartoum is located in the middle of the populated areas in Sudan, at almost the northeast center of the country between 16 degrees latitude north, 15 degrees latitude south, longitude 21 degrees west, and 24 degrees longitude east. >It expands an area amounting to 20,736 km (12884 Mile) square between the West Bank of the River Nile, from North Khartoum Bahri, Shendi, River Nile State, from both the East Kassala, Kassala State, Port Sudan, Red Sea State and North East Blue Nile, from the West White Nile, Omdurman, North Kordofan and Northwest Omdurman, Northern State, from South Wad Madani, Al Jazirah (state) and Southwest Ed Dueim, White Nile State.

[15]

Climate

Climate data for Khartoum (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 39.7
(103.5)
42.5
(108.5)
45.2
(113.4)
46.2
(115.2)
46.8
(116.2)
46.3
(115.3)
44.5
(112.1)
43.5
(110.3)
44.0
(111.2)
43.0
(109.4)
41.0
(105.8)
39.0
(102.2)
46.8
(116.2)
Average high °C (°F) 30.7
(87.3)
32.6
(90.7)
36.5
(97.7)
40.4
(104.7)
41.9
(107.4)
41.3
(106.3)
38.5
(101.3)
37.6
(99.7)
38.7
(101.7)
39.3
(102.7)
35.2
(95.4)
31.7
(89.1)
37.0
(98.6)
Average low °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
16.8
(62.2)
20.3
(68.5)
24.1
(75.4)
27.3
(81.1)
27.6
(81.7)
26.2
(79.2)
25.6
(78.1)
26.3
(79.3)
25.9
(78.6)
21.0
(69.8)
17.0
(62.6)
22.8
(73)
Record low °C (°F) 8.0
(46.4)
8.6
(47.5)
12.6
(54.7)
12.7
(54.9)
18.5
(65.3)
20.2
(68.4)
17.8
(64)
18.0
(64.4)
17.7
(63.9)
17.5
(63.5)
11.0
(51.8)
6.2
(43.2)
6.2
(43.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.1
(0.004)
0.0
(0)
3.9
(0.154)
4.2
(0.165)
29.6
(1.165)
48.3
(1.902)
26.7
(1.051)
7.8
(0.307)
0.7
(0.028)
0.0
(0)
121.3
(4.776)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.9 0.9 4.0 4.2 3.4 1.2 0.0 0.0 14.7
Average relative humidity (%) 27 22 17 16 19 28 43 49 40 28 27 30 29
Mean monthly sunshine hours 316.2 296.6 316.2 318.0 310.0 279.0 269.7 272.8 273.0 306.9 303.0 319.3 3,580.7
Mean daily sunshine hours 10.2 10.5 10.2 10.6 10.0 9.3 8.7 8.8 8.1 9.9 10.1 10.3 9.8
Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation,[16] NOAA (extremes and humidity 1961–1990)[17]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)[18]

Demographics

Year Population
City Metropolitan area
1907[19] 69,349 n.a.
1956 93,100 245,800
1973 333,906 748,300
1983 476,218 1,340,646
1993 947,483 2,919,773
2008 Census Preliminary 3,639,598 5,274,321

Economy

Development in Khartoum

After the signing of the historic Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLA), the Government of Sudan began a massive development project.[20][21] In 2007, the biggest projects in Khartoum were the Al-Mogran Development Project, two five-star hotels, a new airport, Mac Nimir Bridge (finished in October 2007) and the Tuti Bridge that links Khartoum to Tuti Island.

In the 21st century, Khartoum developed based on Sudan's oil wealth (although the independence of South Sudan in 2011 affected the economy of Sudan negatively[22]). The center of the city has tree-lined streets. Khartoum has the highest concentration of economic activity in the country. This has changed as major economic developments take place in other parts of the country, like oil exploration in the South, the Giad Industrial Complex in Al Jazirah state and White Nile Sugar Project in Central Sudan, and the Merowe Dam in the North.citation needed

Among the city's industries are printing, glass manufacturing, food processing, and textiles. Petroleum products are now produced in the far north of Khartoum state, providing fuel and jobs for the city. One of Sudan's largest refineries is located in northern Khartoum.[22]

Retailing

The Souq Al Arabi is Khartoum's largest open air market. The "souq" is spread over several blocks in the center of Khartoum proper just south of the Great Mosque (Mesjid al-Kabir) and the minibus station. It is divided into separate sections, including one focused entirely on gold.[23]

Al Qasr Street and Al Jamhoriyah Street are considered the most famous high streets in Khartoum State.

Afra Mall is located in the southern suburb Arkeweet. The Afra Mall has a supermarket, retail outlets, coffee shops, a bowling alley, movie theaters, and a children's playground.

In 2011, Sudan opened the Hotel Section and part of the food court of the new, Corinthia hotel Tower. The Mall/Shopping section is still under construction.

Education

Khartoum is the main location for most of Sudan's top educational bodies. In Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, there are four main levels of education. First: kindergarten and day-care. It begins in the age of 3-4, consists of 1-2 grades, (depending on the parents). Second: elementary school. the first grade pupils enter at the age of 6-7 .and It consists of 8 grades, each year there is more academic efforts and main subjects added plus more school methods improvements. By the 8th grade a student is 13–14 years old ready to take the certificate exams and entering high school. Third: upper second school and high school. At this level the school methods add some main academic subjects such as chemistry, biology, physics, geography, etc... there are three grades in this level. The students ages are about 14-15 to 17-18. Higher Education: there are many universities in Sudan such as the university of Khartoum, even foreigners attend universities here, because the reputation of the universities are very good and the living expenses are low compared to other countries. After all, the education system in Sudan went through many changes in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[24][25][26]

High schools

Al-Mawahib Schools - Khartoum Bahry
  • Khartoum Old High Secondary School for Boys
  • Khartoum Old High Secondary School for Girls
  • The British Educational Schools (BES)[27]
  • Khartoum American School, KAS, established in 1957.
  • Khartoum International Community School, KICS, established in 2004.
  • Unity High School.[28]
  • Suliman Hussein Academy
  • Comboni and St. Francis, Khartoum new high secondary school for boys
  • Khartoum International preparatory school (KIPS)|Khartoum International preparatory school, established in 1928.
  • Qabbas Private International Schools
  • Riad English School, established 1987

The higher institutes in Khartoum

Transportation

Air

Khartoum is home to the largest airport in Sudan, Khartoum International Airport. It is the main hub for Sudan Airways, Sudan's main carrier. The airport was built at the southern edge of the city; but with Khartoum's rapid growth and consequent urban sprawl, the airport is now located in the heart of the city. A new international airport is currently being built about 40 km (25 mi) south of the city center. There have been delays to start construction because lack of funding of the project but it is expected that the airport will be completed sometime in 2017. It will replace the current airport in Khartoum as Sudan's main airport.

Bridges

White Nile Bridge, Omdurman to Khartoum, Sudan
Intersection in Khartoum

The following bridges cross the Blue Nile and connect Khartoum to Khartoum North:

The following bridges cross the White Nile and connect Khartoum to Omdurman:

the following bridges cross from Omdurman: to Khartoum North:

The following bridges cross to Tuti from Khartoum states three cities

Rail

Khartoum has rail lines from Wadi Halfa, Port Sudan on the Red Sea, and El Obeid. All are operated by Sudan Railways. Some lines also extended to some parts of south Sudan

Architecture

University of Khartoum

Architecture of Khartoum cannot be identified by one style or even two styles; it is as diverse as its culture, where 597 different cultural groups meet. In this article are 10 buildings of Khartoum to showcase this diversity in buildings’ shapes, materials, treatments. Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations, such as the Kingdom of Kush, Kerma, Nobatia, Alodia, Makuria, Meroë and others, most of which flourished along the Nile. During the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were identical, simultaneously evolved systems of Pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.

In response to the worldwide deterioration of the environment and the increase in pollution levels, there has been a strong movement towards sustainable architecture across the globe. This movement has received attention and concern from governments as well as private sectors. In the past decades, Sudan has seen a huge surge in infrastructure and technology, which has led to many new and innovative building concepts, ideas and construction techniques. There is now a constant flow of new projects arising, thus leading to a new, transformed, modernised form of architecture. [31]

  • Squares and public gardens

Masjids and Places of worship

[32]

Culture

A statue, claimed to depict Natakamani, at the front of the National Museum of Sudan

Museums

The largest museum in all of Sudan is the National Museum of Sudan.[33] Founded in 1971, it contains works from different epochs of Sudanese history. Among the exhibits are two Egyptian temples of Buhen and Semna,[34] originally built by Queen Hatshepsut and Pharaoh Tuthmosis III, respectively, but relocated to Khartoum upon the flooding of Lake Nasser.

The Republican Palace Museum,[35] opened in 2000, is located in the former Anglican All Saints' cathedral[36] on Sharia al-Jama'a, next to the historical Presidential Palace.

The Ethnographic Museum[37] is located on Sharia al-Jama'a, close to the Mac Nimir Bridge.

Botanical gardens

Khartoum is home to a small botanical garden, in the Mogran district of the city.[38]

Clubs

Khartoum is home to several clubs such as the Blue Nile Sailing Club,[39] the German Club, the Greek Hotel,[40] the Coptic Club, the Syrian Club and the International Club.[41] There are also two football clubs situated in Khartoum – Al Khartoum SC[42] and Al Ahli Khartoum.[43]

Twin cities

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Khartoum". Dictionary.reference.com. 
  3. ^ "Khartoum". TheFreeDictionary.com. 
  4. ^ Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World (Second ed.). McFarland. p. 194. ISBN 0-7864-2248-3. 
  5. ^ Walkley, C. E. J. (1935). "THE STORY OF KHARTOUM". Sudan Notes and Records. University of Khartoum. 18 (2): 221–241. JSTOR 41710712. doi:10.2307/41710712 (inactive 2017-01-01). 
  6. ^ "Beja scholars and the creativity of powerlessness". Passages. University of Michigan Library. 
  7. ^ Hasan Shukri (August 1966). "Khartoum and Tuti 'Shreen Munz Qarnan". Khartoum. 1 (11): 23. 
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  10. ^ "World | Africa | Riots after Sudan VP Garang dies". BBC News. 1 August 2005. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
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  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Khartoum". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  17. ^ "Khartoum Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 16, 2014. 
  18. ^ "Klimatafel von Khartoum / Sudan" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  19. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica von 1911: Band 15, Seite 773". Encyclopedia.jrank.org. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  20. ^ "Sudan and UNDP launch Millennium Goals project". Sudan Tribune. 5 September 2005. Retrieved 28 June 2008. 
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  22. ^ a b "Country Analysis Brief: Sudan and South Sudan" (PDF). US Energy Information Administration. 2014-09-03. p. 13-14 Oil refineries. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
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  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
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  31. ^ http://archnet.org/library/places/one-place.jsp?place_id=1823&order_by=title&showdescription=1archnetr
  32. ^ http://www.sudanway.sd/features_mosques.htm
  33. ^ Shumba, Ano (2015-10-28). "Sudan National Museum ; Bio". Music in Africa. Retrieved 2017-07-14. 
  34. ^ "The Rescue of Nubian Monuments and Sites". UNESCO. 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-14. 
  35. ^ "Palace Museum". Presidency of the Republic of Sudan. 2016. Retrieved 2017-07-14. 
  36. ^ "Designs for the Cathedral Church of All Saints, Khartoum...". RIBApix. 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-14. 
  37. ^ "Museums In Sudan". The Embassy of the Republic of Sudan. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  38. ^ Jibreel, T. J. O. (2010). "2 - Materials and Methods, Site of collection" (PDF). Two Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps Affecting Ficus sycamorus (L.) Fruits in Khartoum State (Thesis). Khartoum, Sudan: University of Khartoum department of Zoology. pp. 20–22. 
  39. ^ Uloth, Tony (2011-01-18). "The Blue Nile Sailing Club". The Melik Society. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  40. ^ "Reuters.com". Africa.reuters.com. 2009-02-09. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  41. ^ "Night clubs in Khartoum city". Fortune of Africa. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  42. ^ "Former Ghana coach Kwesi Appiah takes over at SC Khartoum". BBC Sport. 2014-12-17. Retrieved 2017-07-14. 
  43. ^ "Al Ahli Khartoum". FIFA (International Federation of Association Football). May 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-14. 
  44. ^ "İstanbul'un Kardeş Şehir, İşbirliği Protokolleri ve Mutabakat Zaptı/İyi Niyet Mektupları" [Istanbul's Sister Cities, Cooperation Protocols and Memorandum of Understanding/Goodwill Letters] (in Turkish). İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi. Retrieved 2015-06-01. 
  45. ^ "Sister Cities of Istanbul". Istanbul. 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  46. ^ "Ethiopia's Capital Addis Ababa and Khartoum sign twin cities agreement". Nazret. 26 September 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
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  49. ^ "Brotherhood & Friendship Agreements Signed Between Cairo & Arab Cities". Ministry of State for Administrative Development, Cairo Governorate. 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. Twinning document; Khartoum; Sudan; 14/2/1979 
  50. ^ "Sister Cities". Wuhan University. 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 

Bibliography

See also: Bibliography of the history of Khartoum

External links

Media related to Khartoum at Wikimedia Commons