A human society is a group of people related to each other through continued relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or virtual territory, same interests, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions. A given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent members. In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification and/or dominance patterns in subgroups.
In so far as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term used extensively within criminology: an organized group working together having a common interests, beliefs, or profession.
More broadly, a society may be described as an economic, social, or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied collection of individuals or subgroups. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups. A society can be a particular ethnic group, such as the Saxons; a nation state, such as Bhutan; or a broader cultural group, such as a Western society. The word society may also refer to an organized voluntary association of people for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. A "society" may also be a group of social organisms such as an ant colony, or any cooperative aggregate such as, for example, in some formulations of artificial intelligence.
were a people of uncertain origin who were active in Northern Europe during the Viking Age
. They were active from roughly the late ninth century through the early twelfth century and could be found in areas of Lapland
, Russia, and the Byzantine Empire
that were frequented by Scandinavian
traders, raiders and mercenaries. Scholars differ on whether the Kylfings were ethnically Finnic
. Their geographic origin is also disputed; Denmark
and the Eastern Baltic
are put forward as candidates. Whether the name Kylfing denotes a particular tribal, socio-political, or economic grouping is a matter of much debate. They are mentioned in Old Norse runestone
, and poetry
, as well as Byzantine
records and Rus'
law-codes, in which they were afforded significant economic and social privileges. According to the sagas, the Kylfings opposed the consolidation of Norway
under Harald Fairhair
and participated in the pivotal Battle of Hafrsfjord
. After Harald's victory in that battle, they are described in the sagas as having raided in Finnmark
and elsewhere in northern Norway
and having fought against Harald's lieutenants such as Thorolf Kveldulfsson
The Garden of Earthly Delights is a triptych by the early Netherlandish master Hieronymus Bosch. The left panel depicts God presenting Eve to Adam, while the central panel is a broad panorama of sexually engaged nude figures, fantastical animals, oversized fruit and hybrid stone formations. The right panel is a hellscape and portrays the torments of damnation. The intricacy of its symbolism, particularly that of the central panel, has led to a wide range of scholarly interpretations over the centuries.
(1958–1981) was a Canadian
humanitarian, athlete and cancer research
activist. He was a distance runner and basketball player, and continued both pursuits after his right leg was amputated upon being diagnosed with osteosarcoma
in 1977. His experiences in chemotherapy
inspired Fox to attempt the Marathon of Hope, a cross-Canada run, in the hopes of raising C$
1 for every person in the country for cancer research. He began on April 12
, 1980, at St. John's, Newfoundland
, and ran west for 143 days and 5,373 kilometres — the equivalent of a marathon
a day — until forced to stop near Thunder Bay, Ontario
, after cancer returned in his lungs. Fox captivated the country; he was named Newsmaker of the Year
in both 1980 and 1981, and was the youngest person ever named a Companion of the Order of Canada
. His run and subsequent battle with the disease united the nation and led to millions of dollars in donations. He inspired the Terry Fox Run
, held in over 60 countries and the world's largest one-day fundraiser for cancer research; over $500 million
have been raised in his name. Considered a national hero, many buildings, roads and parks have been named in his honour across Canada.
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